VT: Throckmorton v. United States (1878) makes any presidential pardon that has an aspect of fraud fully null and void. Among areas of fraud for a president is ‘conflict of interest,’ such as with Flynn, Manafort or Giuliani and Roger Stone. Legal experts say those pardon’s won’t stand.
The challenge is simple, the president has been indicted for ‘high crimes and misdemeanors’ which includes treason tied to inciting insurrection. Any and all who took part in this effort or who could testify against Trump or be a potential co-conspirator can only be pardoned through clearly defined ‘fraud,’ which is disallowed.
You can’t pardon a potential witness or a relative. You can’t sell pardons. Pardoning witnesses is a “self pardon,” which is prohibited. Common law states that “no man can be judge in his own case.”
Raw Story: The Constitution endows the President with the “power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States.” Pardons have generally been granted after conviction and sentencing, but since Ford pardoned Nixon, there is precedent for pardoning someone who has not even been charged with a crime. Lawyers call this a “pre-emptive pardon.” But is any kind of pardon valid when riddled with corruption? The question would appear to answer itself.